Today I start with a new series, archaeological finds from Carnuntum. Carnuntum is one of the most important and most extensively researched ancient archaeological place in Austria and offers an infinite number of finds from the Roman period.
The first model shows the find processing. Since the text is limited below the model, it will be published here.
In the ancient district of Carnuntum was a magnificent city palace, the so-called Villa Urbana. Since 2005, there are regular excavations. Trowels and spades are removed layer by layer, for fine work fine trowels and brushes are used. In order to be able to locate the finds at any time, the existing room structure of the former residential building was provided with numbers and these in turn divided into quadrants. Each removed layer of the quadrants is registered in a plan, the matrix. All finds from a quadrant and a layer get their own find number and are collected in boxes. Thereafter, the objects are divided into washable (ceramic, bone, brick) and non-washable materials (glass, wood, metal, mural). The fragments to be washed are previously examined for residues before they are carefully cleaned in a water bath with a brush and depending on the weather for 1 - 3 days to be dried. Subsequently, the entire find number is brought together again and prepared for transport to Hainburg in the archaeological depot.
During find processing in the depot, all fragments are sorted according to material groups, counted and entered into a database. Each find gets its own inventory number and is thus clearly identifiable. The sorted fragments are stored in the depot for further scientific processing.
1 Amphora: Two-legged storage vessel with a capacity of 5 to 50 liters.
2 Hairpin: As a jewelry and fixation of the hairstyle. Precious metal or leg hairpins were used.
3 Glass Stone: Used as jewelry. Was worn in chain form on the arm or neck or as an earring.
4 Bronze ring: The mostly cross-sectionally D-shaped rings were used as chain links or to attach keys and other objects.
5 Iron: Hand-forged nail from a pointed square rod. Nails had a length between 4 and 35 cm.
6 Slag: Waste product and at the same time a witness to the rain production of the Romans.
7 Feinware: Thin-walled and decorated tableware, a particularly beautiful form of ceramics.
8 Glass: From the 1st century AD onwards, the use of food and toilet utensils and window glass has risen sharply due to the changed form of production.
9 Glazed ware: Finished with lead glaze, yellow-gray, olive or brown ceramics of the luxury class.
10 Brilliant clayware: Better form of tableware with chevron decor or stamped motifs. Smooth surface thanks to engobe coating.
11 Jawbone: Through bones of animals you gain insights into the eating habits of the Romans.
12 Lamp: Light source with oil as fuel. Ceramic lamps were a mass product among the Romans. More expensive lamps were made of bronze, iron or glass.
13 Mosaic Stone: Flooring was decorated with mosaics, especially among wealthy Romans.
14 Oxidizing baked ceramic: The oxygen contained in the clay is oxidized by the addition of oxygen. The resulting hematite colors the ceramics reddish.
15 Incense bowl: Vessel with sculpted wave bands, stood on altars, served the Roman cult and was also used as a lighting device.
16 Reducing baked ceramic: Reduction of oxygen in the kiln, magnetite is produced, which colors the ceramic grayish.
17 Mortar: Ceramic vessel with small stones incorporated to rub and mix herbs and spices.
18 Terra Sigillata: Roman tableware, was from the 1st century. n. Chr. developed in Italian workshops. Smooth or decorated with relief, appliques, carving, Barbotine. Was not produced in Carnuntum.
19 Wall painting: The wall decoration was widely used, especially by the Romans.
20 Bricks: Tegula and imbrex are the shapes of Roman roof tiles. Some carry a manufacturer’s stamp. Also used for canals or brick tombs.